Day 1: Basic Of Linux

Day 1: Basic Of Linux

Task: What is the Linux command to

  1. Check your present working directory.

  2. List all the files or directories including hidden files.

  3. Create a nested directory A/B/C/D/E


Linux is a free and open-source operating system kernel that serves as the foundation for various Linux distributions, commonly referred to as Linux OS or simply Linux. It was created by Linus Torvalds in 1991 and has since become one of the most popular operating systems in the world.

Linux is known for its stability, security, and flexibility. It is used in a wide range of devices and systems, including servers, desktop computers, mobile devices, embedded systems, and supercomputers. Some well-known Linux distributions include Ubuntu, Fedora, Debian, CentOS, and Arch Linux.

Linux is built on the Unix-like operating system model, which emphasizes a modular design and supports multitasking and multiuser functionality. It provides a command-line interface (CLI) as well as graphical user interfaces (GUIs) like GNOME and KDE.

One of the key features of Linux is its open-source nature. The source code for the Linux kernel is freely available, allowing developers and users to modify, distribute, and contribute to the operating system. This has led to a large and active community of developers who contribute to its development and create a wide range of software applications for Linux.

Linux is highly customizable and can be tailored to meet specific needs. It supports a wide range of software and programming languages, making it a popular choice for developers and system administrators. Additionally, Linux offers strong security features and is less prone to viruses and malware compared to other operating systems.

Overall, Linux is a powerful and versatile operating system that has gained widespread adoption due to its stability, security, flexibility, and open-source nature.

Types of Linux

  1. Ubuntu: Based on Debian, Ubuntu is one of the most popular and user-friendly Linux distributions. It focuses on ease of use and provides a polished desktop environment. It has both a long-term support (LTS) version and a regular release version.

  2. Fedora: Developed by the Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat, Fedora is a community-driven distribution known for its commitment to open-source software. It incorporates the latest technologies and is often used as a platform for testing new features before they make their way into Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

  3. Debian: Debian is one of the oldest and most influential Linux distributions. It is known for its stability, reliability, and commitment to the open-source philosophy. Debian serves as the foundation for many other distributions, including Ubuntu.

  4. CentOS: CentOS (Community Enterprise Operating System) is a distribution based on the source code of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). It aims to provide a free and open-source alternative with long-term support and stability.

  5. Arch Linux: Arch Linux is a lightweight and flexible distribution that follows a rolling release model. It provides a minimalist base system and encourages users to customize and build their own environments. Arch Linux is known for its simplicity and extensive documentation.

  6. openSUSE: Developed by the openSUSE Project, openSUSE is a community-driven distribution that emphasizes stability and ease of use. It offers both a stable release and a rolling release version called "Tumbleweed."

  7. Linux Mint: Linux Mint is a user-friendly distribution that aims to provide a familiar and intuitive experience for users transitioning from Windows. It offers different desktop environments, including Cinnamon, MATE, and Xfce.

The Architecture of Linux:

  1. Kernel: At the core of Linux is the Linux kernel, which serves as the bridge between hardware and software. It provides essential functionalities, such as process management, memory management, device drivers, file system support, and network connectivity. The kernel interacts directly with the hardware, abstracting its complexities and providing a uniform interface for the rest of the system.

  2. System Libraries: Above the kernel, Linux utilizes various system libraries, such as the GNU C Library (glibc). These libraries provide a collection of pre-compiled functions and code that applications can use to access lower-level functionalities. They provide an abstraction layer, simplifying programming tasks and allowing developers to write portable and efficient code.

  3. System Utilities: Linux includes a variety of system utilities that assist in managing the system and performing various administrative tasks. These utilities include command-line tools and graphical interfaces for tasks like package management, system configuration, process monitoring, file management, network configuration, and more. Examples of system utilities in Linux include systemd, bash (shell), package managers (apt, yum, etc.), and system configuration tools.

  4. Graphical User Interface (GUI): Linux provides various desktop environments and windowing systems that enable graphical user interfaces. Popular desktop environments include GNOME, KDE Plasma, Xfce, and Cinnamon. These environments provide a visual interface for users to interact with the system, manage applications, and customize their desktop experience.

  5. Applications: At the highest level, Linux supports a vast array of applications and software. These can include web browsers, office suites, media players, development tools, server software, and more. Applications in Linux can be command-line based or graphical, depending on user preferences and the intended use case.

For those who use Windows:

  1. You can use Virtual Box in Windows from this website: Click Hear

  2. You can Launch Aws cloud instance Ec2:

  3. You can also do Dule boot to your PC :

  4. You can also do WSL (Windows Subsystem Linux)


    Why use Linux?

    This is the one question that most people ask. Why bother learning a completely different computing environment, when the operating system that ships with most desktops, laptops, and servers works just fine?

    To answer that question, I would pose another question. Does that operating system you’re currently using really work “just fine”? Or, do you find yourself battling obstacles like viruses, malware, slowdowns, crashes, costly repairs, and licensing fees?
    If you struggle with the above, Linux might be the perfect platform for you. Linux has evolved into one of the most reliable computer ecosystems on the planet. Combine that reliability with zero cost of entry and you have the perfect solution for a desktop platform.

    That’s right, zero cost of entry… as in free. You can install Linux on as many computers as you like without paying a cent for software or server licensing.

    Let’s take a look at the cost of a Linux server in comparison to Windows Server 2016. The price of the Windows Server 2016 Standard Edition is $882.00 USD (purchased directly from Microsoft). That doesn’t include Client Access License (CALs) and licenses for other software you may need to run (such as a database, a web server, a mail server, etc.). For example, a single-user CAL, for Windows Server 2016, costs $38.00. If you need to add 10 users, for example, that’s $388.00 more dollars for server software licensing. With the Linux server, it’s all free and easy to install. In fact, installing a full-blown web server (that includes a database server), is just a few clicks or commands away (take a look at Easy LAMP Server Installation to get an idea how simple it can be).

    If zero cost isn’t enough to win you over–what about having an operating system that will work, trouble-free, for as long as you use it? I’ve used Linux for nearly 20 years (as both a desktop and server platform) and have not had any issues with ransomware, malware, or viruses. Linux is generally far less vulnerable to such attacks. As for server reboots, they’re only necessary if the kernel is updated. It is not out of the ordinary for a Linux server to go years without being rebooted. If you follow the regularly recommended updates, stability and dependability are practically assured.

Open source

Linux is also distributed under an open-source license. Open source follows these key tenets:

  • The freedom to run the program, for any purpose.

  • The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish.

  • The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbour.

  • The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others.

These points are crucial to understanding the community that works together to create the Linux platform. Without a doubt, Linux is an operating system that is “by the people, for the people”. These tenets are also a main factor in why many people choose Linux. It’s about freedom and freedom of use and freedom of choice.

Basic command on Linux.

  1. ls command:
  1. cd command:
cd Documents
  1. pwd command:
  1. mkdir command:
mkdir new_directory
  1. rm command:
rm file.txt
  1. cp command:
cp file.txt destination/
  1. mv command:
mv file.txt new_location/
  1. cat command:
cat file.txt
  1. grep command:
grep "keyword" file.txt
  1. sudo command:
sudo command_to_execute

Day 1 Task: Basics Linux command

  1. Check your present working directory.

  2. List all the files or directories including hidden files.

ls -la #- is used for flag
  1. Create a nested directory A/B/C/D/E
mkdir -p A/B/C/D/E